All research conducted by the ANRS in resource-limited countries involves a partnership between French teams and one or more teams of the countries where the work is being done. In some countries, the ANRS and the ministry of health or the ministry of research or both formalize this partnership by signing a convention defining reciprocal long-term undertakings in the collaboration: these are the ANRS sites. In the other countries, projects are "off-site."
There are ANRS sites in Ivory Coast, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Vietnam, Cambodia, Egypt, and Brazil. All the sites receive recurrent funding for lab equipment and the construction or renovation of buildings, as well as personnel. The ANRS also awards grants to pre- and post-doctoral researchers.
The sites are built through partnership between the ANRS and the health and research authorities of the countries. They allow the development of research programs between national institutions of the partner countries (university hospitals, laboratories and research centers, Institut Pasteur, national AIDS programs, etc.) and French research bodies like the Development Research Institute (IRD), National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Inserm), the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), the Institut Pasteur network, universities, the Esther network, etc.
Numerous collaborations are also under way with international teams or institutions involved in HIV/AIDS research (WHO, National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership…).
Depending on the year, between 10 and 25% of research in resource-limited settings is funded outside ANRS sites, as other countries are sometimes associated with studies conducted simultaneously in several places and with several partners.
The ANRS also supports projects that emerge from strong and lasting north-south collaborations. Among these countries, South Africa is a stable and important center of research since almost twenty projects have been completed there since 2000, principally in clinical research and social sciences research. This is also true of Thailand where, over the same period, there have been fifteen or so research projects in which the researchers are associated with the activities of the ANRS site of Southeast Asia.